Philippines employment law
- The relationship between capital and labor is not merely contractual. It is so impressed with public interest that labor contracts must yield to the Philippine Labor Code and other regulations by the State. In other words, labor contracts are no ordinary private contracts; rather, they are imbued with public interest and a proper subject matter of police power measures.
- Labor is a constitutionally protected social class due to the perceived inequality between capital and labor. The presumption is that the employer and the employee are on unequal footing so the State has the responsibility to protect the employee. Hence, the aim of labor laws is to strike a balance between rights and responsibilities of the two, or as jurisprudence put it, the “equalization of social and economic forces.”
- In labor cases, the quantum of proof necessary is substantial evidence, or such amount of relevant evidence which a reasonable mind might accept as adequate to justify a conclusion.
- When the evidence in labor cases is in equipoise, doubt is resolved in favor of the employee.
- The Constitution guarantees the employee’s right to security of tenure, which means that the employer shall not terminate the services of an employee except for a just cause or when authorized by law.
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